Field guide to Gaillard

Field guide to Gaillard

I have a deep interest in the work of Gaillard — they made copper pots from the early 1800s to the 1980s and their early pots are considered real masterpieces. I have a few of them, and I’m curious about how the look and craftsmanship of Gaillard evolved over the century of its work. I’m going to use this post to take a close look at each of my Gaillard pans and try to establish a chronological order for the marks.

About Gaillard

TJFRANCE has a Gaillard history page at his store’s website and it’s worth a look. TJFRANCE describes Gaillard not as a single company but as a house that encompassed multiple family-run workshops. Gaillard claimed to have been founded in 1795, but I found an even earlier mention of chaudronnerie Gaillard in Paris in 1761.

In 1815, Gaillard, fabricant, entreprend toutes sortes de chaudières de toutes formes et dimensions (“manufacturer of all shapes and sizes of boilers”) operated from 16 rue Saint-Jacques-la-Boucherie. The company grew steadily over the decades that followed: in 1820, there was a second location at 151 rue Mouffetard, and by 1839, there were a total of four. Of the four, “A. Gaillard” at 87 Faubourg Saint-Denis relocated to 81 Faubourg Saint-Denis by 1862, and appears to have been the antecedent of the well-known atelier.

After that point, commercial records show the company’s name changes over time.

  • In 1873, the company changed name from “A. Gaillard” to “Gaillard fils.”
  • In 1892, the name changed from “Gaillard fils” to “Gaillard.”
  • In 1903, the firm was known as “J. and E. Gaillard.” I believe this was Jules and Émile Gaillard.
  • Sometime between 1914 and 1920 there was a split: Émile operated a kitchenware and hardware store at 28 Faubourg Poissonière while Jules remained at 81 Faubourg Saint-Denis as a chaudronnier.
  • By 1924, Émile Gaillard’s store was no longer advertised. The latest business record I can find is a shop invoice dated 1927.
  • Jules Gaillard continued to operate the company through 1938, the final year of commercial listings I can access online. The latest document I have seen with his signature is dated 1933.
  • By the 1950s, the company was operating as Établissements Jules Gaillard et fils, implying that Jules had passed away and his son(s) continued to operate in his name.
  • The company ceased operations in the 1980s.

I turned to genealogical records to try to find related Gaillards with the correct first names during this timeframe but I had little success. There were many Gaillards in and around Paris during this time but I didn’t find enough information during the crucial 1870s to 1920s time period. I did find an Émile Gaillard, manoeuvre, chaudronnier en cuivre (laborer, coppersmith) in Paris, but he was born in 1893 and would have been just 14 in 1907, which seems a little young to become a partner in the main Gaillard enterprise. I’ve had no luck pinpointing the “A.” or “Jules” during the timeline above.

But what little I have been able to find out nevertheless suggests a possible rough progression of stamps. Please note that this entails some guesswork on my part, and as always, I welcome corrections and additions to make this a more reliable resource.

Business stage Stamp Wording Notes
Pre-1890s? GAILLARD
81 FAUG ST DENIS, PARIS
Possibly pre-1890s?
Main Gaillard and Jules Gaillard as apprentice (?)

24cm Gaillard saute and 27cm Jules Gaillard Windsor

GAILLARD
81 FAUBG ST DENIS

Main Gaillard production
Field guide to Gaillard

JULES GAILLARD
81 FAUBG ST DENIS, PARISadd row after this

Jules Gaillard as apprentice?

Field guide to Gaillard GAILLARD
PARIS
81 FAUBG ST DENIS
Second version of main Gaillard stamp
Field guide to Gaillard

JULES GAILLARD
PARIS
81 FAUBG ST DENIS

Second version of Jules Gaillard as apprentice?

Jules and Émile Gaillard Field guide to Gaillard J. E. GAILLARD
PARIS
81 FAUBOURG SAINT-DENIS
1903 to 1920-ish; confirmed 1911
Field guide to Gaillard J & E GAILLARD
PARIS
81 FAUBOURG ST. DENIS
1903 to 1920-ish
Post-1920s break with Émile Field guide to Gaillard J. GAILLARD
PARIS
81 FAUBG ST DENIS
1920s to 1930s
Field guide to Gaillard J. GAILLARD
—–
PARIS
1920s to 1930s?
Établissements Gaillard et fils Field guide to Gaillard GAILLARD
—–
PARIS
1930s
GAILLARD
PARIS
1930s-1940s?
See this warning about a replica stamp
Field guide to Gaillard GAILLARD
— PARIS —
Possibly 1930s-1950s?
Field guide to Gaillard GAILLARD
PARIS
1960s-1980s?

Pre-1890s?: Gaillard with no oval

This stamp reads “GAILLARD 81 FAUG SDENIS PARIS” with no enclosing oval. I think this is an early Gaillard mark, likely pre-1890s: the stamp has no oval enclosure and the pan itself has an early flat-profile cast iron handle. This could be a stamp during the A. Gaillard or Gaillard fils era, 1873 to 1892 or so.


1890-1903: Gaillard and Jules Gaillard lines

It appears to me that for a period of time, there were two “brands” of copper produced from the 81 Faubourg Saint-Denis location: the main Gaillard line and a second line stamped for Jules Gaillard. At the moment I believe there are two styles of stamp — linear and oval — for each brand during this period.

Gaillard, 1890-1903

24cm Gaillard saute and 27cm Jules Gaillard WindsorLinear version

This is quite a rare stamp and I am indebted to reader Hannah for bringing it to my attention. It reads “GAILLARD 81 FAUBG ST DENIS” on two lines; there is no “Paris”.

This is the only example of this stamp that I have seen. I am guessing it is 1890-1903 based on its similarity to the linear Jules stamp, and based on business records I believe Jules was active starting in 1890. It could also be that this is an earlier stamp and Jules copied it for his own mark.

This connection is tenuous, I know, but it’s all I have to go on at the moment — if you have more information I would welcome it!

Field guide to Gaillard
Oval version

This stamp reads “GAILLARD 81 FAUBG ST Denis Paris.” Stylistically, this is similar in its typography with the Gaillard stamp (tentatively pre-1890s) I put first in this table.

This is the style of stamp on Stephen Whalen’s 46cm rondeau. I think that pan (and this stamp) are from right at the end of the dovetailing era and the beginning of the machine press era, 1890s to 1900s.


Jules Gaillard, 1890-1903

There are two stamps I’ve come across with “Jules” spelled out on them, and they’re both on antique pots that show hand-craftsmanship. This aligns with my research that suggests that Jules was producing copper under his own name from 1890 until about 1903.

Field guide to GaillardLinear version

The linear version of this stamp says “JULES GAILLARD 81 FAUBG ST-DENIS. PARIS” in two straight lines. This is a fairly rare stamp — I have not seen many other examples of it online. I have one “Jules Gaillard” pan, a 30cm rondeau. It is dovetailed, indicating it was made prior to the adoption of machine presses, and the rivets on the handles show hammer marks from hand-finishing. These together point to hand craftsmanship prior to the era of machine presses and riveting machines.

Field guide to GaillardOval version

The oval version of the stamp is a cartouche reading “JULES GAILLARD 81 FAUBG ST DENIS PARIS.” This stamp is on an 18cm saucepan; it’s not dovetailed but is quite a bit thicker in the base than the sidewalls, which to me is a sign of hand-raising or very early machine pressing.


J. E. or J. & E. GAILLARD oval with address

As of 1903, Jules and Émile Gaillard had joined forces to operated the family firm together. The joint firm was listed in 1914 and then there is a gap in the records during World War I; when records resume in 1920, Jules and Émile had parted ways. Based on this, I estimate that these stamps represent work from 1903 to World War I.

I’ve seen two stamps that I think are from this era.

  • J. E. Gaillard 81. Faubourg Saint-Denis
  • J & E. Gaillard 81. Faubourg ST-Denis

The first seems to be more common than the second — I’ve only seen one example with the ampersand. Take a side-by-side look below.

The pans I have with these marks, a 44cm sauté marked “J. E.” and a 36cm sauté marked “J & E.”, are both big heavy restaurant quality pieces. I don’t know why there are two versions of the J & E stamp that are so similar.


J. GAILLARD oval with address

Field guide to Gaillard
Between 1914 and 1920 — during or just after World War I — Émile Gaillard split from Jules Gaillard to open a hardware store. Jules continued to operate the business as J. Gaillard, chaudronnerie et glacierie (coppersmith and refrigeration). I believe this oval stamp represents production right after this split.

The stamp reads “J. GAILLARD 81 FAUBG ST DENIS
PARIS” with fonts and abbreviations in the address that most closely resemble the Gaillard oval of the 1890s-1900s. I know it’s a fool’s errand to try to base this chronology solely on visual similarities between stamps but at the moment I don’t have much else to go on. But the pans I’ve seen with this stamp are certainly early 20th century showing craftsmanship from machine presses, later than the Gaillard-only stamp.


Field guide to GaillardJ. GAILLARD PARIS oval

This stamp has “J. Gaillard” at the top, the word PARIS below, and a broken dash mark in between, all enclosed in an oval. I only have one pan with this mark, a little silver-lined pan de truite. It’s dovetailed, but note that an oblong pan like this would have to be — I believe these are still pieced together to this day, though now with welded seams instead of dovetails. This is an example where dovetailing does not mean the pan was 19th century — one has to consider the entire pan.

The 20th century styling on the pan example I have, the name “J. Gaillard,” and the simpler and more modern styling of this stamp lead me to believe that it marks production towards the middle of the 20th century, perhaps the late 1920s into the 1930s. I don’t know the dates of Jules Gaillard’s life but he operated the company until at least 1938; I suspect this stamp was the last version used during his lifetime before the company became known as Établissements Jules Gaillard et fils.


GAILLARD PARIS oval

This stamp is stylistically similar to the J. Gaillard oval above. The typeface is simpler — minus the J, of course — and the horizontal divider between GAILLARD and PARIS is a solid line and not the more ornate flourish of the one above.

Field guide to GaillardI suspect this is the first Gaillard stamp used after Jules Gaillard’s death when the company became Établissements Jules Gaillard et fils.

I have a large unrestored 50cm stewpot with this stamp. This pot exhibits some of the same qualities we’ve seen in the previous examples: a handle base plate with a downward curve and pronounced decorative point, small rivets with impact marks, and flattened but not flush internal rivets. These are signs to me of machine-assisted work in the 20th century.


GAILLARD PARIS arch, Large

Based on the style of this stamp and the construction of the pieces I see that carry it, I think this stamp represents work in the 1930s and 1940s.

I have recently become aware that there are two near-identical versions of this stamp appearing on vintage copper on eBay and Etsy. I have posted a statement on this matter. My current opinion is that one version, which I call Type 1, is a genuine Gaillard stamp. At this time I cannot verify the legitimacy of the other version, which I call Type 2. You can tell them apart by the alignment of the letters as shown below.​

Type 1: Genuine Gaillard

Type 2: Unverified origin

The Gaillard stamp controversy

Field guide to GaillardGAILLARD PARIS arch, Large with dashes

This stamp looks a heck of a lot like the Large arch version above but it is a different stamp: it has dash marks alongside the word “Paris,” and the spacing between the lines is narrower.

This is a fairly rare stamp. I’ve only seen it on a few pieces, all obviously post-WW2 — welded, lathe-spun, decorative rather than cooktop pieces. They feel to me like Villedieu work from one of the smaller shops, but this is a gut feel and I have no other examples from which to guess.


Flight of Gaillard Windsors
GAILLARD PARIS arch, Small

This stamp shares the same arched shape, but the letters of the stamp are narrower and more closely set than the others.

I see this stamp on pots that also have the “Made in France” stamp, which suggests they were made after 1957 up until Gaillard closed its doors in the early 1980s. This is a relatively common version of Gaillard stamp, again suggesting to me that it’s recent; for example, it’s the stamp on my daily-use set of saucepans. The exterior rivets are rounded, with no impact marks. The interior rivets are rounded and have numbers on them.


Conclusions

I hope these stamp examples are helpful to you as you estimate the age of Gaillard pieces. As always, I apologize in advance for errors and omissions, and I welcome information you have that ties a stamp to a specific period of time: catalogs, advertisements, sales invoices, and so forth. Please reach out by email or in the comments — thank you!


Corrections

In November 2019, I went through and simplified this to make it more of a reference tool. I added a few stamps I’ve come across recently and updated some date estimates based on more research.

5 Comments

  1. Such great information VFC! What a the chances of only the lid of a Gaillard piece would have the stamp on it, and not the rest of the pan ? Should one be worried ?

    Thank you!

    Tammy

  2. Hey Tammy! It’s my experience that pans and lids are frequently separated over the years and it’s a rare and welcome phenomenon to find a matched pair that have stayed together. Are you concerned that a pan that you thought was Gaillard could in fact be something else? Take a good look at the condition and craftsmanship. Are the handle shapes similar? There are plenty of photos around this site of known Gaillard, so you have some examples of lids and pans. Do both pieces look similarly aged? Do they have any other stamps or markings in common? And finally, what is the fit between lid and pan? If they fit together like hand and glove, particularly if the piece is large, then it’s possible the maker didn’t think it necessary to stamp both. And feel free to reach out via email if you’d like me to take a look.

  3. J. E. or J. & E. GAILLARD oval with address:
    If I see two initials in front of a family name, I would assume that it is 1 person with two forenames (first and middle name). However, if the initials were separated by an ampersand, it can be clearly seen that there are 2 people with the same family name. Was the job to the stamp maker unclear?
    The unabridged spelling of the street is clumsy and is not written in this way on any other Gaillard stamp on which the street is listed.
    I am surprised that this “clumsy” stamp is more common than the version with the correct and more elegant spelling.

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